The rate of reaction is defined as the change in concentration of product per unit of time: 1. Reliability and Validity of the Experimental Process. Using the results of experiments like these, the average rate of the reaction can be calculated. The following research question was the developed from this experiment in order to further investigate the factors affecting the rate of reaction. Catalysts are not consumed in the catalysed reaction and can be used repeatedly. • The reaction rate will be directly proportional to the HCl concentration. The catalyst was added to the solution of sodium thiosulfate and iron nitrate slightly later as it was not possible to do this as well as start the timer therefore, minor amounts of time were lost at the start of the experiment. The time taken for the same amount of yellow precipitate to be produced provides a method of measuring the rate of reaction at different concentrations. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Also starting the timer as soon as these solutions have started reacting with each other. Some sample reactions. First-order reaction example. This is extension would also minimise random human error and it would increase reliability of the experiment. Oxidation states represent the number of electrons that an atom is capable of gaining or donating as well as a metals ability to form chemical bonds (Reference 3). Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction The rate of reaction is the speed at which a chemical change occurs. B. Add to Favorites. Calculating outliers using only data within 2SD of the mean, Table 4 – Showing outliers for each catalyst. Uncertainty was taken into consideration and was By initiating chemical changes and determining the ability of atoms to gain or lose electrons, the oxidation states of a metal affect its activity as a catalyst which in turn affects the rate of reaction of the experiment (Reference 4). Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers. (2019). Transition metals are examples of good catalysts with high activity due to their ability to change oxidation states with ease in a homogenous reaction. Human error when stopping the timer and determining when the cross was considered to be visible. Measuring equipment providing inaccurate readings with uncertainty of To do this, they calculate averages and percent yield, and they compare their data with one other group and to the trend their hypothesis predicted. The volume of this gas could be measured and the rate of reaction could be calculated from this figure. One example could be changing the surface area, the concentration of acid and pressure can affect the reaction. These were changed from the original experiment where the solution became cloudy and obscured the cross because it was identified that it would be easier to observe the cross appearing as it proved to be difficult to determine when the cross was fully hidden from the cloudy solution. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. For reactions involving one or more colored substances, rates … Objective. Take the chemical reaction: [latex]A + 2B \rightarrow 3C[/latex] Here, the rate of appearance of product C in time interval Δt is: [latex]\text{average rate}=\frac{\Delta C}{\Delta t}[/latex] The concentration of C, [C], is usually expressed in moles/liter. Reaction rates are therefore determined by measuring the time dependence of some property that can be related to reactant or product amounts. TRUE or FALSE: Changes in the temperature or the introduction of a catalyst will affect the rate constant of a reaction. Reaction rates of ions in aqueous solution are usually extremely fast. An easier method might be to weigh the reaction container to determine how much carbon dioxide has been … These collisions must have correct orientation and sufficient energy to break the bonds within reactants and allow formation of new bonds. This is a simple example of measuring the initial rate of a reaction producing a gas. The error bars in Graph 2 measure the uncertainty of the data collected. Five variations of the acid ranging from 0.5M to 2.5M were used, with three trials for each type. : ... Or they can result from the need to provide better solutions to a problem. ± Smallest Increment ÷2. Reliability and validity of the experimental process. Associated error was -          Different reactants were used in the experiment – iron (III) nitrate reacted with sodium thiosulfate. They then use this data analysis to draw a conclusion. If any of these chemicals are to come into contact with eyes and skin, irritation may occur as well as possible burns. Iron Nitrate. Reactions That Produce Gases Such as Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to produce oxygen: 2H2O2(aq) → 2H2O(l)+O2(g) 2 H 2 O 2 (aq) → 2 H 2 O (l) + O 2 (g) As the experiment continued, the solution began to change to a light brown colour where the cross was clearly visible and this was when the timer was stopped at the end of each trial. Reactions between covalent molecules tend to be slow and have higher activation energies because covalent bonds must be broken. This is only a moderate relationship between the increase of rate of reaction and the varying catalyst. Table 6 – Improvements to be made to minimise errors highlighted in Table 5. If we were to represent the energy profile of a successful reaction between hy… The results from this experiment show that varying the catalyst in the reaction between sodium thiosulfate and iron nitrate can affect the time taken for a cross to appear on the piece of paper underneath the beaker. Company Registration No: 4964706. The best possible catalyst that should be in this situation could be determined based on the oxidation states of the element which is being tested in this experiment. S2O32-(aq) + 2H+(aq) -> S(s) + SO2(g) + H2O(l). Looking for a flexible role? VAT Registration No: 842417633. First-order reaction (with calculus) Plotting data for a first-order reaction. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. This could affect Table 1 and Table 4 and the accuracy of these results. If inhaled and breathing difficulties occur, medical attention will be sought. The collision theory states that in order for a reaction to occur, collisions must take place between reactant particles. The table of resources below gives some examples that may help students overcome mathematical barriers to understanding. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. 7. This random error effected the reliability of the experiment. 1 Rate of Reaction of Sodium Thiosulfate and Hydrochloric Acid. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Rates of reaction of a chemical experiment can be affected by many factors such as temperature, concentration, surface area and by adding a catalyst (Reference 1). They need to be able to use reciprocals (rate ∝ 1/t), and recognise and use expressions in decimal and standard form – when … Half-life of a first-order reaction . In order to increase the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulfate and iron nitrate, a catalyst was added at the beginning of the reaction. Chemical reactions only occur when reacting particles collide with sufficient energy (and in the correct orientation) to break bonds. Temperature of the room and the solutions to ensure rate of reaction is not increased due to this factor. Copyright © 2003 - 2021 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Between 19.69 to 39.91, therefore no outliers. Note that the rates of the individual reactions follow the stoichiometric rates ratios in the balanced equation: 1,99 × 10 − 5: 9,89 × 10 − 6: 2,01 × 10 − 5 is 2: 1: 2. Clearly shown in Graph 2 is that as the number of oxidation states of the catalyst increases, the quicker the cross on the piece of paper becomes visible. Rates of reaction Rate of reaction equations. Reaction rates can vary dramatically. The coefficient of determination can predict that 68.20% of the variation in time taken for the cross to appear can be explained by the varying catalyst. Between 9.65 and 54.35, therefore no outliers. The times in table 1 would be slightly altered as the time for the observer to see the cross and stop the timer must be considered. Stability of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate in rainwater and nitric acid solutions, Grade 10 Chemistry-CHANGING THE RATE OF REACTION LAB INVESTIGATION REPORT, The Inhibition of Calcium Carbonate Formation in Aqueous Supersaturated Solutions, Spontaneous Precipitation and Seeded Crystal Growth, Calcium pyrophosphate crystal salt forms and the influence of phosphocitrate. It is evident that the width of the error bar of Cobalt is the largest of all of the catalysts and this was highlighted in Table 3. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Graph 1 – Number of Oxidation States vs Time Taken for Cross to Appear, Graph 2 – Time taken for Cross to Appear when Sodium Thiosulphate reacts with Iron Nitrate with Error Bars. If I repeated this experiment I could have tried investigating other aspects of the experiment which could change the rate of reaction. Transition metals are examples of good catalysts with high activity due to their ability to change oxidation states with ease in a homogenous reaction. A general rule for most (not all) chemical reactions is that the rate at which the reaction proceeds will approximately double for each 10-degree Celsius increase in temperature. For example, understanding rates of reaction is important in the manufacturing of ammonia for fertilizer using the Haber process. It is evident that the number of oxidation states are a key factor in determining which catalyst works best for this reaction. It is clear that the error bars of all of the catalyst were small meaning that error was minimal. For the given reaction above, state the rate law. Due to temperature being a factor that effects the rate of reaction, the fact that the room temperature was different on the two days that the experiment was completed, the results would have been affected. 2. An extension could be made to this experiment to eliminate the human error by changing the way measuring the rate of reaction through the time it takes for a cross to appear. For any reaction, a m… Introduction. Between 42.3 and 65.7, therefore no outliers. This error effected the times recorded in Table 1 as these would be slower than if the chemicals were combined and the timer started at the exact same time. An excel program was used to calculate standard error and standard deviation. Mini-lesson. • The rate of the reaction will decrease as HCl is consumed. Between 2.14 and 5.26, therefore no outliers. Fe3+(aq) + 2S2O32-(aq) → [Fe(S2O3)2(H2O)2]–(aq). For all chemicals, gloves, lab coats, enclosed shoes and safety glasses will be worn at all times. Because the manufacturers want to produce as much fertilizer as possible, they must manipulate the temperature to produce a satisfactory rate. For sample problems 3-6, use Formula 6 to answer the questions \[ H_2O \longrightarrow 2H_2+ O_2 \label{6} \] *Assume the reaction occurs at constant temperature. 1.1. Conclusion Based on experimental data, the rate of reaction increases as the temperature increases which supports my hypothesis to an extent. Each of the catalysts worked in a way that increase the rate of reaction however it was evident that copper was the most active catalyst in the experiment between sodium thiosulfate and iron nitrate. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! 3. This indicates that whilst the results from this experiment are accurate, they may not be the most reliable. Info: 5068 words (20 pages) Essay Reaction Rate Experimental Design. Transition metals are considered to be active catalysts due to their ability to lose electrons easily, also meaning that some of these metals are able obtain numerous oxidation states. -          Using three different catalysts – which further tested different factors (other than temperature and concentration which were in the original experiment) that affect the rate of reaction. The chemical nature of reactants determines the speed of a chemical reaction. This would minimise error by 10 times to For example, a flat smooth piece of iron will rust much more slowly than iron filings. Today, students will analyze data they gathered from that reaction rate experiment in order to draw a conclusion. Print Lesson. A possible explanation for this relationship is because there is only a select amount of catalysts that will be effective in a reaction between sodium thiosulfate and iron nitrate. The following examples describe various ways to measure the rate of a reaction. Study for free with our range of university lectures! This is the average rate of appearance of C … ±0.05ml. If the reaction to produce ammonia is conducted at a low temperature, the rate of reaction will be too slow. If ingested, vomiting will be induced immediately directed by medical professional. Hydrochloric acid reacted with sodium thiosulfate and the time taken for the solution to become cloudy and obscure the cross (drawn on a piece of paper) was measured to determine the rate of reaction. 20 teachers like this lesson. In the case of solids, the reaction rate will depend on the amount of surface area. Sample Problems. Plotting data for a second-order reaction. Adding the catalyst and the iron nitrate to the sodium thiosulfate simultaneously. N.p. The mixture becomes cloudy due to the produced sulphur precipitate. When conducting rates of reaction experiments, students need to process a considerable amount of data. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. A simple set-up to do this might be: The reason for the weighing bottle containing the catalyst is to prevent introducing errors at the beginning of the experiment. How does varying the catalyst in the reaction between 20 mL of Sodium Thiosulphate and 20 mL of Iron (III) Nitrate solution affect the time taken for a cross drawn on a piece of paper to appear? • As the concentration of the acid is increased then the reaction rate will increase. For example, wood combustion has a high reaction rate since the process is fast and rusting of iron has a low reaction rate as the process is slow. time=47.0+50.9+…56.115=54.0s, No catalyst % uncertanty=6.654=12.22%×100, Absolute uncertainty for measuring cylinder, Measuring Cylinder Absolute Uncertainty = Define Reaction Rate. In real life situations, discovering the most active catalyst can allow a reaction to occur in the shortest amount of time possible, making it time efficient as well as cost effective. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Inhalation of iron (III) nitrate, Sodium Thiosulfate, Iron (II) sulphate, Cobalt (III) Chloride and Copper (II) Sulphate can cause unconsciousness if inhaled, ulceration and perforation of the nasal septum. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. All the experiments should be completed on the same day with the room temperature and the temperature of the solutions being controlled the entire time. Rates of reactions that consume or produce gaseous substances, for example, are conveniently determined by measuring changes in volume or pressure. For the reaction of calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide and calcium chloride, the carbon dioxide can be collected as well. ± 0.5ml, Using a buret rather than a measuring cylinder to gather the most accurate readings. Sodium thiosulphate reacts with Hydrochloric acid reacts to form yellow precipitate of sulphur. LESSON 7: Conducting the Reaction Rate ExperimentLESSON 8: Reaction Rate Lab Report. As per the general definition, the speed with which a reaction takes place is referred to as the rate of a reaction. In the manufacture of ammonia by the Haber Process, the rate of reaction between the hydrogen and the nitrogen is increased by the use of very high pressures. This can be explained using the collision theory, as below: (a) When a positive catalyst is used in a chemical reaction, it enables the reaction to occur through an alternative path which requires a lower activation energy, as illustrated in the energy profile diagrams in Figure. 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